Providing quality digital teaching materials is seen as a good thing by 92% of teachers – even percentage who find positive the professional qualification for the application of these technologies in the classroom. This is shown by an unprecedented research by the Lemann Foundation in partnership with the Instituto Paulo Montenegro and Ibope Inteligência: most teachers consider external evaluations positive and advocate training to improve classroom work.
Specialist teaches teachers to use technology as an ally in class
The survey, conducted among public school professionals, also shows that 80% of teachers believe that having specific training to guide work from external evaluations positively influences education in public schools. For 66% of teachers, knowing what students are expected to learn each year facilitates teacher work.
- Professor is a profession that was chosen, usually graduates knowing that if you want to be a teacher – says the project coordinator of the Lemann Foundation, Ernesto Faria. – One point is to guarantee working conditions so that the teacher does not lose this expectation. If the teacher does not see a return, he or she can become discouraged, he may not have the desire to make the student learn – he adds.
“Technology will improve education, but not replace it,” argues professor of the University of the Future
The Research Classroom – The Teachers‘ View on Education in Brazil was done with primary school teachers of public schools. A thousand interviews were conducted in 50 municipalities of the five Brazilian regions, between June 19 and October 14, 2014. The margin of error is 3 percentage points, and the confidence level is 95%.
Teachers differ on common-based curricula
The research also evaluated what teachers think about the common national curricular basis, predicted in the National Education Plan (PNE). By law, enacted last year, the foundation should set students’ learning and development goals. The survey showed that there is still much doubt as to what this basis would be and how it could help in teaching.
The data collected show that 52% of teachers fully agree that curricula should have a common basis; 55% agree in whole or in part that the country’s regional diversity would be disregarded on a common basis and 25% disagree in whole or in part that a common base could reduce educational inequalities.
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According to the coordinator, dialogue with teachers falls short of what they should, especially within schools, and this dialogue is fundamental to the definition of a common base.
- Information comes [to teachers] in an asymmetrical way. If you have clearer communication, you can take the argument and resistance may cease to exist, it may be that the common ground makes more sense to the school. This basis will have to seek the essential.
For some time now, the traditional model of education in Brazil deserves to be questioned and reinvented. With so many free technological alternatives and the increasing increase of the use of the internet by the young people and the innumerable possibilities of their employment, it is not possible to continue with the model of traditional and stiff education practiced today.
In this sense, the need for change in the way of teaching is increasingly visible and this was the proposal of the lecture The Disruption in Education through Technology, presented during the Campus Party in Belo Horizonte. In the presentation, given by the founder of the Jedi Academy Technology Training Center, Micah Lopes, spoke about the three main problems faced and that hinder the individual’s systemic development and assassinate human talent from elementary school to university.
Analogic Teaching, focus on the destination and not on the path and the lack of working the digital skills of the students. These were the main flaws pointed out by the speaker. “According to a survey conducted by Escola magazine in 2015, about 93% of students in the private network and 66% of the public network in Brazil use smartphones. These data reveal the enormous and unused potential of social media for teaching, “he explains. For Lopes there is a huge wall between the school and the use of the internet, a fear of teachers of market loss and this is a fallacy. “The internet is friendly to the education system, it is necessary to break this wall and use what is free to complement the classes taught by teachers,” he adds. What’s more, you need to be aware that children are connected, work on their digital skills and prepare them to protect themselves from the virtual world and not pretend that this reality does not exist.
According to Lopes, another problem is social myopia. Society has a tendency to think that the one who succeeds is the one who takes the best grades, makes a college and continues on a straight and uncurved path. We must go beyond thinking outside the box and see that talents are not limited to the exact, human and biological areas and that these areas can be interconnected.
This is exactly what the Electronic Engineering students of PUC Minas, Ricardo Alcântara and Jéssica Soares did. In addition to the lecture, the student also participated in a course on the development of creativity during the event. “It is not because you are of Exatas that the solution of the problem is exclusively in the area of Exatas and the lecture given by Lopes made me realize this and to see that things are already there within our reach, you just have to know how to use the technology in your favor “Says Ricardo. For Jessica the talk was a surprise. The student imagined that it would be just one of many didactic presentations, but no. Jessica realized the need for teachers to adapt to the use of technology in favor of teaching and sharing ideas.
Pointed by many experts of recognized scientific merit as one of the only exits for Brazil in the 21st century (1), education is currently experiencing an unprecedented crisis both in terms of its institutional forms of organization and in terms of curricular content presented to the students (2). Therefore, it will not be an exaggeration to start this article by stating that the Brazilian situation, viewed from the perspective of socio-educational indicators of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco), of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development of Europe (OECD) and the National Institute for Educational Studies and Research (INEP), is extremely serious in relation to the quality of teaching offered by schools, as well as in terms of the pedagogical practices that still exist in classrooms. If, on the one hand, we have made effective progress in extending school coverage nationwide in a little more than 20 years, on the other hand, we must recognize that the existing economic and social inequalities have continued to primary school and higher education in Brazil.
The nation of the menacing and sad contrasts could not, therefore, be any other than that which enlarges throughout its twentieth century its network of education and the time of permanence of its young people in the school, but at the same time, does it in a discriminatory way and excluding, by means of educational policies that do not favor the schooling of all by the regular system. In fact, what can be seen from the continuous increase of the population that enters primary school and higher education is that this situation has led not only the Brazilian educational system to grow considerably, from a quantitative point of view, becoming even massified, but also led to a rapid deterioration in the quality of education.
Although it was already foreseen, the process of elitization of quality education in Brazil ended up in a great and troublesome problem for the governments that succeeded during the military dictatorship. It is worth remembering that the expansion of the number of students at all levels of education, with significant growth in the private sector, was not accompanied by significant investments in the area of public school education, nor was there an effective concern with the democratization of access to this well as defined by the Federal Constitution of 1988 as a duty of the State. Let us not forget, after all, that the country carries with it a long history of political domination of the elites, which is not only based on the repression of social movements, but also, and mainly, on imposing the interests of the elites as being the interests of all a society.
Without going into the intricacies of such a debate, let us simply state here that for a long time the elites have relentlessly believed that the most important thing was for the country to reach the third millennium by presenting indices of development (economic, social, political-institutional, industrial , scientific and technological, and so on) compatible with their ambitions in the most diverse fields of international economics and politics or, to use a more current term, globalized economy and politics. In fact, the treatment of the subject of education was, for many decades, unworthy of a country with so many interests and pretensions vis-à-vis the market. Perhaps we can better situate this question by remembering that there has never been a State project for education or even a school in Brazil that takes into account an imperious paradigm shift, simultaneously, economic and educational. Independent of ideologies, most of our rulers and public men in general insisted so much on the economic growth of the country, whatever it was, that we ended up diverting ourselves from the larger goal of transforming society from what education offers most. fundamental and precious: the formation and physical, intellectual and moral development of the human being.
With the approval of the Law on Guidelines and Bases of National Education, sanctioned by the Presidency of the Republic on December 20, 1996, it was hoped, however, that “education, the duty of the family and the State” (Art. social policy of the highest priority. Unfortunately, that is not what has been observed. After more than seven years, we have not yet been able to fully implement the principles that would constitute the mainstay of a new phase of the country’s democratization, especially with regard to conceptions, guidelines and propositions for education .
Referring to the discussion on the role of education in contemporary societies, we would emphasize, in this specific context of introduction and goal of an education and school project for the country, that “the preparation (of the student) for the exercise of citizenship and its qualification for the work “(LDB, Art. 2) could never be given, in the words of Paulo Freire himself, without the experience or” effort of understanding that characterizes the reading of the world “(3). At least, without that greater sense, no.
For many contemporary thinkers, there is no way to overlook the fact that the interrelationships of the educational system with other systems are dominated by economics, when the question is, in fact, political. What, in relation to the belief in the liberating school, poses a major problem, namely: how to break with the dichotomy between school-machine of reproduction of social inequalities and school-place par excellence of the struggle against these same inequalities. With this argument, we would also like to draw attention to the fact that, at the political level of action, interests and advances in relation to the discussion of an education project for the country have not yet led to great achievements which, so long ago, is due to society. In addition to the aforementioned principles, we would like to remind you that our commitment to student training must, of course, be subject to a process that gives them access to the word, since, more than that, we must guarantee each one access to knowledge. In our daily political complacency, we often do not prioritize education as a formative process, intrinsically linked to the exercise of citizenship (4), leaving aside what Paulo Freire said about the necessary and critical transformation of educational practices that aim, among others, to lead the student to read the world: “understanding here as” reading of the world “the” reading “that precedes the reading of the word and that also pursuing the understanding of the object is done in the realm of everyday life.
The presentation of this summary and introductory table of questions about the role that education and school can and should play in Brazil in the twenty-first century is not reduced to a mere discussion of the philosophical and political aspects, properly speaking, of economy of education. As we shall see, one of the crucial and recurrent problems in the contemporaneity of the debate on education in today’s ‘scientific’ and ‘technological’ world is precisely what concerns the need to read the world without what we can not understand it or learn nothing about it. As Paulo Freire so well wrote, we could not fail to emphasize the fact that “no one reads or studies authentically if he does not assume, before the text or the object of curiosity, the critical form of being or being subject to curiosity, subject of the reading, subject of the process of knowing what it is “(6). It is vital to understand that the role of education in science and technology in contemporary societies can not be tied to any of its economic and social dimensions, as some technocrats want, nor can it be subsumed through generic explanatory schemes that do not account for the intricate process of knowledge production in an increasingly complex and complicated world.
In the same way, we consider it fundamental to reflect on the purpose of education in Brazil (ref. Art. 2 of the LDB) that breaks with the assumptions that do not allow us to make effective educational advances in theories, methodologies and innovations in the teaching in general. We assume, in fact, that questions of technical or operational mastery of education are not the most important. Rather, they should be subordinated to a logic different from that which governed some of our most important practices in the field of science and technology teaching, such as the transmission of scientific and technological information through lectures. We are referring, finally, to the development of a certain instrumental and technical vision of teaching, which served to shift the greater sense of knowledge and learning from science and technology, transforming them into disembodied, perennial and unchanging speech that has nothing to do with the reality of the student or the production of knowledge in our world.
To restrict the sense of school and education to its instrumental function would be as misleading as the very idea that, through education in science and technology, we would solve the problem of access to full citizenship, culture, knowledge, job. If we are to betray some of the most important thoughts and theorists in this area, we would say that education in science and technology in Brazil can not take place without the incorporation of broad human values, which have nothing to do with the subject of scientific- production processes treated by LDB or even exploited by the media through scientific dissemination.
Contrary to a certain state of affairs, we want to show here that there is a huge expectation in Brazil today about the fact that professionals in the field of science and technology education can respond in a competent and effective manner to the numerous and diverse demands for methods, materials and innovative pedagogical projects. It is not without reason that governments, politicians and managers of S & T and education have shown great interest in the subject, many closely linking the political prestige and economic success of many rich countries in the developed world to long-lasting and not inconsiderable investments in education, science and technology. The political and economic importance of the subject for the development of society is also compounded by a considerable increase in (cultural) interest in science and technology produced in the most distant laboratories in the United States, Europe and Japan, all reinforcing in the collective imagination the idea that, through their “applications” to S & T, they will change our lives forever.
Challenges for scientists, engineers, physicians, challenges for educators, we could not ignore how much we are impregnated by this image of a science that triumphs without ceasing and that, for this reason, can no longer stop producing meanings for the human life. If today we are dealing with transgenics and biopiracy in the pages of economics and politics of newspapers, it is because we are so immersed in a scientific and technological culture that we no longer separate the discourses by what they bring from specific content of an area of knowledge.
To those who ask themselves this question about the importance of teaching science and technology well as reading and mathematics, we would say that there is the great challenge of the 21st century. After all, it does not seem to us very inappropriate to mention in the current economic and political context the fact that the role of education in science and technology in contemporary societies transcends very clearly the traditional aims of teaching. In introducing the theme of education in general, we really wanted to do it in order to understand the irreversibility of two current phenomena. On the one hand, we can no longer happily call into question the fundamentals of the principles governing the formative processes in our society: equality of conditions, respect for freedom, pluralism of ideas and conceptions, universalization of primary and secondary education, school and teacher education, democratic management, quality assurance and school linkage to the world of work and social life. On the other hand, science and technology as an inseparable binomial and, at the same time, as practices rooted culturally in our society. It is no longer enough to make the old distinctions between pure, basic and applied science, between interdisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity and pluridisciplinarity. Finally, it is a question of assuming a different role in relation to the knowledge and education of the student. To form people, to produce goods and services, to create jobs are objectives that go far beyond a neoliberal discourse that is not sensitive to the humanist appeals of a vast group of actors concerned with education as a formation of values and behaviors.
It is no wonder that, to a certain extent, the very discussion and adequacy, by the force of the law, of curricular proposals (ref. National Curricular Parameters-PCNs), has become the subject of intense disputes within the educational and academic field. In general, we stop thinking about and speak of improving the quality of teaching as a simple process of perfecting our school and our masters to adopt as a political guideline a set of extremely complicated and complex educational plans and actions, little or almost nothing teachers, students, parents, managers, politicians.
Finally, we want to emphasize that the education in science and technology of our people will not be done without the participation, side by side, of scientists and educators. All reflections and strategies to achieve this must be seen as a collective task. With the accumulated experience, however, we want to believe that hard nuclei of education in science and technology will be formed capable of thinking out to the many impasses lived in our days by education and school. Educational laboratories, associations, clubs, museums, science centers, centers of science and art, in the center and the periphery, will be only spaces for the creation and realization of new, different, innovative social practices. Certainly the dilemmas and cleavages that divide our scientists and educators today will not disappear, but we want to believe that the end of the utilitarian ideology in education is self-evident, whose meaning lies in the very terms in which it was proposed: that the purpose of the school is to prepare the student for the exercise of citizenship and his qualification for work is not bad; the problem is in the construction of meaning of what is learned in it (7). And learning science and technology is not something that can be done independently of meaning.
The mere presence of the technologies in the classroom, therefore, does not represent improvements for the teaching. From Giz to Tablet is a documentary that has heard students, parents and teachers about the modernization of schools. In the opinion of Guilherme Françolin, a publicitye and associate director of Santo Caos, a consultant who produced the film, the Brazilian school needs to change. “Technology has made learning a little more palpable, the classroom is more interactive, but not enough.”
“The current generation wants everything at the same time. The idea of the documentary was to understand how young people and new parents are dealing with these changes in education, “says Françolin. “It is clear, in the student’s eyes, the comparison with the technologies used outside the school. They have a tendency to want everything faster, and when school does not do it, they find it boring, “agrees Professor Cunha.
The current model of education, in which the student attends classes of 50 minutes and tests as a way to prove the knowledge, is pointed out by Françolin as one of the biggest problems of schools in Brazil. “Going in and getting stuck in one place, seeing the teacher talk, without the collective construction is the opposite of the behavior of this generation outside the classroom,” he justifies.
Professor Cunha explains that technology in schools is used incorrectly, without full exploitation of the potential of the equipment. “New digital technologies are used as analog technologies. The tool’s potential is not exploited. The tablet, for example, turns into a log book, despite having many other features, “he explains.
For Françolin, his research shows that teachers fit the already existing model, the pedagogical line of the school, and the students maintain an increasing dissatisfaction. “They follow what school imposes. Despite wanting different, wanting to learn and have fun, they can not like it, “he explains. Cunha points to the rigid curriculum as one of the factors that disappoint today’s students. “Schools are well below the expectations of the contemporary student and the classes are still very traditional”.
UNIVERSITY TEACHER TRAINING AND PRACTICE IN CONTEMPORARY
In everyday life, the terms are used synonymously to define any higher education institution (HEI), but not quite tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. Do you know the difference between college and university? What about university center and university?
More than a matter of curiosity, understanding the differences between these three types of educational institutions can guide your choice of where to study.
Read on and learn how to differentiate between college, university and university center!
After all, what is a college?
As MEC explains, all higher education institutions are accredited as colleges initially. The change to university or university center depends on some characteristics that we will see later.
A college can be a public or private institution and is focused on a particular area of knowledge, such as a law school or medical school, for example. This type of HEI needs MEC authorization to open new courses, and may offer undergraduate and graduate options.
For MEC, the faculty of a college must be made up of professionals who hold at least the title of specialists in their fields.
For whom college is indicated
The fact that it offers a smaller volume of courses and is limited to a certain area of knowledge does not make the quality of teaching in a college poor.
The criterion you should consider is your own planning for continuing education tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. If, upon graduation, you wish to delve into the area of your training, a college may be the ideal choice.
What is a university?
One of the simplest ways to understand the difference between college and university is to consider that the university represents an educational institution that brings together several colleges.
Rather than having a law school and a medical school – following the examples mentioned above – a university needs to make room for teaching research and extension. Unlike colleges, however, universities have the autonomy to open new courses.
In addition, the MEC requires universities to have at least four stricto sensu postgraduate programs, at least one of which has a doctorate degree.
With regard to faculty, a university should have at least one third of professionals who are masters or doctors in their fields.
For whom the university is indicated
Knowing the differences between college and university, it is easier to understand that the second type of institution is usually more suitable for those who want to develop academic research and participate in extension projects.
The university, however, is still an interesting option for those who have a different focus from academic life tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. It is worth considering that a master’s or doctoral program can be developed with the objective of finding solutions for the job market, applicable in acting outside the teaching.
And finally, what is a university center?
Not only between college or university is the choice made of the ideal educational institution. Those wishing to enter a degree can also opt for a university center.
This type of institution is a compromise between the other two, being larger than a college – it can cover one or more areas of knowledge and offer more courses – and smaller than a university.
As with college, it has no obligation to offer postgraduate, research and extension courses tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. On the other hand, it has the same requirement of a university to have at least one third of its faculty composed of masters and doctors, besides the autonomy to create new courses.
For whom the university center is indicated
Considering the differences between college and university and the fact that the university center has a mix of its characteristics, this type of institution can be indicated as a good alternative in your search for the ideal HEI.
Like other types of institutions, a university center can offer both courses that direct you to pursue an academic career and prepare you to face the market tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. Thus, it is important to consider your ambitions for your studies and career and possibilities offered by the university center of your choice.
So, do you already know which type of educational institution is the right choice for you? Share this post with others and help them make that choice too!
Higher education lives moments of full expansion, the demand for teachers to work in different areas of education has increased tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. Concomitantly, we have teachers in the classroom facing great challenges and being confronted in their performance with demands for which they are unprepared.
Good oratory, masterful classes where mastering the content was sufficient does not address the needs of today’s students.
The lack of scientific knowledge of the teaching and learning process is responsible for the unpreparedness of the majority at the beginning of their careers.
According to Masetto (2003), the awareness on the part of teachers that their role of higher education teacher requires specific training for their exercise is recent. Your preparation needs to go beyond a bachelor’s, master’s or doctoral degree
The teacher’s identity is directly linked to their educational background. And what then would be the university professor’s identity for this new time?
With the arrival of information technologies, access to content, knowledge was made easier for students and they arrive in a more attractive and dynamic way.
How to deal with the fact that you are no longer the “mouthpiece” of knowledge and that the student has access to the content previously? How to leave the traditional role of transmitter?
What method to use in order to facilitate (mediate) the understanding of the much information students receive? How to make the class attractive and meaningful?
We understand that teaching is a complex activity, so we need to take into account that its exercise will involve specific conditions and require a multiplicity of knowledge, skills and attitudes that need to be assimilated and their relationships interpreted tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado (SOARES and CUNHA, 2010).
The lack of pedagogical training of university professors has recently become the object of study in universities and beyond.
There is no more space in contemporary society for the university teaching model as a transmitter of professional knowledge.
The distancing between the teacher and the student, the idea that the former is the owner of scientific knowledge and absolute truth are traces of an educational practice that we need to leave in the past.
This research aims to contribute to the reflection on the formation of the university teacher, and on the appropriate profile for the university teacher today tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.
What is the basis of the criterion that has been adopted in the selection of significant contents for the formation of the university professor, regarding the axis of his profession: the art of teaching?
The research, descriptive theoretical, proposes to know the history of how teacher education for higher education has been performed, identify the difficulties they are in the exercise of the function and the reflection on the skills needed for a better performance of the professional in the field. present.
The theoretical survey, based on the concepts of several authors on the subject is the reference that guides the research and offers parameters for discourse, reflection and construction of opinions that aim to contribute to the opening of the discussion about the profile of university professors in the present day. and strengthen proposals for a restructuring of undergraduate courses.
Thus, it will be conducting the research considering the objective in academic texts, books, monographs and specialized websites.
UNIVERSITY TEACHER TRAINING
Currently we have found fertile ground for discussion on education and training in all areas.
This phenomenon is due to the transformations that societies face on a daily basis.
Competitiveness, the pursuit of knowledge and factors such as the impact of technology and the information society have contributed to changes in the nature and organization of production tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. Thus, training is seen as a vehicle for democratization of access to information, culture and work, even though a theoretical framework is lacking that focuses on the ordering and clarification of this area of knowledge, research and practice (MARCELO GARCIA, 1999). .
Given this scenario, the challenge of the educator and trainer within this context that is constantly changing, should lead institutions to prepare professionals for a reflective and intellectually autonomous teaching practice, seeking the exercise of the transformative role of the professional.
This preparation will assist the professional in their perceptions, interpretations, actions and will guide them in coping with the challenges and paradigms encountered in their daily lives, where scientific knowledge, skills and knowledge are required.
Increasingly the need for intellectual skills to the individual, their productive capacity is directly linked to the acquisition of knowledge.
The great social demand has not found in universities the qualitative and quantitative growth expected.
The emergence of new institutions and the high number of hired teachers do not guarantee the efficient supply of students’ needs.
The university as a training institution has been experiencing moments of crisis not only in terms of funding, but also of direction and meaning. Data from UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations) show a significant growth in the number of teachers in the world tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. However, this situation is worrying when we find that most of these teachers are not adequately prepared for the role of researchers and teaching (UNESCO / CRESALC, 1996 apud PIMENTA; ANASTASIOU, 2010, p.38).
Practice has shown that the lack of knowledge in the field of humanities and social sciences has often placed the teacher in difficulty in understanding and developing his profession, which requires the mastery of different knowledge and skills.
Teachers have experiences and a trajectory of specialization in their specific area of knowledge, however what we experience in university education institutions is the scientific ignorance on the part of these professionals about the teaching and learning process, this ignorance will make their interpretation difficult. of the phenomena that go through the whole process that become responsible when they enter the classroom. One day if you are a student, the next day you become a teacher.
Take responsibility for colleagues who have experience in the profession.
We can say that this first learning happens as if “in fright”. Their perspectives and the practice of the profession intersect and without any mediation of the foundations acquired in their formation.
For a better understanding of the current problems linked to the entire teaching-learning process in higher education, we need to seek to know the historical process of training and professionalization, source of some of the characteristics that make up the work of today’s professional.
Teaching formation in Brazil
Initially the teaching in colonial Brazil had the masters who arrived with the Society of Jesus, graduated from Jesuit colleges or Universities of Portugal.
With the growth of the courses, it was necessary to look for teachers among the successful professionals, recognized in their fields, mostly from the elite.
The knowledge of these teachers was based on the Jesuit principles, remaining entrenched the conception of what teaching was, that is, the professional who knows transmitting to the student who does not know, even after the expulsion of the Jesuits (1759) (CUNHA, 2000).
The arrival of the Portuguese royal family in Brazil in 1808 marked the formalization of higher education.
The title of teacher was instituted and his duties established, his professional performance was overseen and his work inspected by the Congregation, which was in the sight of those in charge of the state.
The Royal Census Bureau of Lisbon was responsible for the accreditation of teachers, after the selection of teachers, principals and the evaluation of students was the responsibility of the Prince Regent or some of his official representatives.
Following this period is a new interpretation of teaching, it has come to be understood as a necessity and no longer a representation of social prestige. The teacher became a public servant and his practice reformulated (MOROSINI, 1990).
With the emergence of experimental sciences and the diminishing religious focus on education, the need arises for changes in the colonial model of higher education, which presented itself as an alienated teaching with no social political interest.
In 1930 a modern educational project was created considering Brazil’s industrialization context.
Law 19,850 of 1931 established The Statute of the Brazilian University, an important step for the organization of Brazilian education, was established from it as a requirement for the creation of the University, the existence of a Faculty of Education, Science and Letters.
The Statute also provided guidance for university institutes to go beyond the pure transmission of teaching. They could organize “original research” where the “aptitudes and inclinations” of professors, students and other researchers from outside the University would be used (MACHADO, 1999).
The 1961 LDB then urged higher education to promote research, the development of science and the arts, and university-level training. It also decided that higher education institutions could offer undergraduate, postgraduate, advanced and extension courses.
. In 1965 with the Statute of the Higher Magisterium the activity of the university professor in teaching and research was considered important and inseparable.
Law 5,540 of 1968 (Higher Education Reform) organized the university structure into departments, defined that the University would be a model for higher education, initiated the integration between research and teaching leading to a new conceptualization of teaching. The reform also indicated the definition of a teacher improvement and qualification policy (NUNES, 2012, p. 25-26).
Over the past 50 years, Brazilian legislation has highlighted the proposition and implementation of laws for national education based on the coexistence of liberal and traditional influences, favoring the relationships between different pedagogical trends in teacher education.
Higher Education and the Law of Guidelines and Bases
Corroborating Masetto (2003) states that the investment by professionals, spaces and training agencies in training for the exercise of teaching in higher education is recent, appeared in Brazil about two decades ago, as a result of a reflection by teachers and involved with higher education.
Until the 70’s, the requirement for the university teaching candidate for the baccalaureate and the exercise of his profession with excellence, in the 80’s became the requirement of specialization courses.
It has lasted for a long time and we still find it in use, the “learn by doing” thesis, just having the mastery of technical knowledge to be able to teach.
Teaching was synonymous with imparting knowledge about a particular subject; a good lecturer was considered a potential candidate.
This way of understanding the teacher’s role is based on technical rationality, the teacher in this model is seen as a disseminator of knowledge.
Pedagogical knowledge here is relegated and seen as “something else”.
Nowadays, despite the recommendation of Law 9.394 / 96 that the preparation for teaching in higher education is through stricto-sensu and lato sensu training courses, we find a different reality, many professionals start to seek training when are already acting.
The teacher needs to understand this new reality to act on it. Their training needs to be continuous and in service, valuing their practice for the construction of new knowledge as a result of reflection.
When beginning the teaching career, the teacher needs to be aware that full development and its functions will depend on the flexibility and willingness to be in constant learning of the knowledge and skills inherent to their profession.
Perrenoud (2000), in his analysis of teacher education, proposes “an inventory of the competences that contribute to the redefinition of teaching activity” and states that the reference in which he is inspired “tries to apprehend the movement of the profession”.
The author defines competence as “the ability to mobilize various cognitive resources to cope with a type of situation”.
To teach in a society where knowledge is accessible, the professional needs to develop some skills such as: 1. organizing and directing learning situations; 2. manage the progression of learning; 3. design and evolve the differentiation devices; 4. engage students in their learning and work; 5. work in teams; 6. participate in school administration; 7. inform and involve parents; 8. use new technologies; 9. face the duties and ethical dilemmas of the profession; 10. Administer your own continuing education. (PERRENOUD, 2000, p. 15).
We understand that having skills alone is not enough, a consistent initial training that ensures theoretical and methodological background is important.
Competence exists only with knowledge; having competence is knowing how to mobilize them productively in new situations.
Here we highlight the fourth competency among those pointed out by the author above: to involve students in their learning and in their work.
This competence highlights the relevance of the search for actions that promote the teachers’ relations with the students in the search for the optimization of the teaching and learning process.
It has a high level of specificity, instruction and operation, which will require the teacher to know the fundamentals of pedagogical practice to develop it.
Teachers at the beginning of their careers need autonomy, technical, pedagogical, and political competence to select and choose strategies that transform knowledge into teaching. It is the responsibility of the university to enable teaching practice “by stimulating and providing conditions for teachers to prepare for the exercise of teaching” (VEIGA, 2000).